A Ruby class definition is just regular code that runs. When you use the
class keyword to create a class, you aren’t just dictating how objects will behave in the future. You are actually running code.
You can put any code in a class definition, and it returns the value of the last statement, just like methods and blocks do.
name = class Ruby puts "Hello world" creator = "Matz" end puts name # Output Hello world Matz
Inside the class definition, the class itself takes the role of the
klass = class Ruby self end puts klass # Ruby puts klass.new # <Ruby:0x00007fbd25854af0>
To access variables defined outside the class definition (i.e., flattening the scope), use
class_eval. Inside, you can also define new methods dynamically on the class, using
ror = "Ruby on Rails" class Ruby; end Ruby.class_eval do puts ror define_method(:run) do puts "Hello, from the new method" end end Ruby.new.run # Output # Ruby on Rails # Hello, from the new method
Instance variables of a class (class instance variables) are different from the instance variables of that class’s objects. If you come from Java or C#, it’s tempting to think that the class instance variables are just the static fields of the class. Instead, they’re just regular instance variables of an object of class
The following example illustrates this. The class
Ruby is an object of the class
rb is an object of the class
class Ruby # ror is a instance variable of class 'Ruby' @ror = "Ruby on Rails" def self.rails puts @ror end def initialize # language is an instance variable of 'a Ruby object' @language = "Ruby" end def execute puts @language end end rb = Ruby.new # valid code Ruby.rails rb.execute # invalid code Ruby.execute rb.rails # Output # # Ruby on Rails # Ruby # undefined method `execute' for Ruby:Class # undefined method `rails' for #<Ruby:0x00007ff1...
When you define a method on a class, e.g.
Ruby.rails, it’s also known as a singleton method of a class.
Here’s the syntax to define singleton method on an object. Here, object can be an object reference, a class name, or self.
def object.method_name # method body end
A singleton class is where an object’s singleton methods live, whether that object is a class name or an object reference. You can access the singleton class by calling
singleton_class method on the object.
The superclass of the singleton class of an object is the object’s class.
The superclass of the singleton class of a class is the singleton class of the class’s superclass.
from: Metaprogramming Ruby 2